Researchers at the University of Georgia and Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, have announced the development of a vaccine that protects against multiple strains of both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza in mouse models. They published their findings recently in the Journal of Virology.

Researchers from UGA and Sanofi Pasteur, which has a research and development collaboration agreement with UGA, will present their data tomorrow, March 30, at the World Vaccine Congress US 2016 in Washington, D.C.

"One of the problems with current influenza vaccines is that we have to make predictions about which virus strains will be most prevalent every year and build our vaccines around those predictions," said Ted Ross, director of UGA's Center for Vaccines and Immunology and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Infectious Diseases in the College of Veterinary Medicine. "What we have developed is a vaccine that protects against multiple different strains of H1N1 virus at once, so we might be able to one day replace the current standard of care with this more broadly cross-protective vaccine."

The H1N1 influenza virus caused a worldwide pandemic in 2009. When it was first detected, it was called swine flu because the virus was similar to those found in pigs, but the virus now circulates as a seasonal form of influenza.

Using a technique called Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Antigen, or COBRA, UGA researchers Donald Carter, Christopher Darby and Bradford Lefoley, along with Ross, created nine prototype synthetic compound vaccines constructed using genetic sequences from multiple influenza virus strains.

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The COBRA vaccines were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 100 years, but many of the experimental vaccines produced immunity against influenza strains not included in the design.

The best treatment for claudication depends on the underlying cause and the severity or extent of symptoms.

Resting by standing still for a few minutes will normally stop the pain and discomfort that mild to moderate claudication causes.

People with mild claudication may also benefit from lifestyle changes to lessen factors that can worsen the condition. These lifestyle changes include:

Frequent, moderate exercise

In people who can exercise, undertaking frequent, moderate exercise may increase how far they can walk and reduce their pain.

Exercise also helps underlying problems that can worsen symptoms, such as:

  • inactivity
  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • obesity

Some authorities recommend 30 minutes of brisk walking daily, walking until symptoms occur, then resting and returning to exercise.

The recommendation is then for a person to slowly aim to trigger symptoms in the first 5–7 minutes of walking. They can do this by increasing walking speed or gradient over time.

Stop smoking

Smoking damages the lining of blood vessels, reduces levels of good fats, or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in blood vessels, and increases the levels of bad fats, or low-density lipoproteins (LDP).

Smoking also promotes harmful blood clotting. Nicotine, the active ingredient in tobacco, increases blood pressure.

Quitting smoking may slow disease progression and increase walking distance in people with conditions that cause claudication, such as PAD.

Eat a healthful diet

Saturated and trans fats can increase cholesterol levels and the risk of developing plaque in blood vessels.

Sodium can dehydrate the body and cause high blood pressure. Alcohol can also increase blood pressure.

Eating a diet of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and unsaturated fats from low fat dairy products, nuts, seeds, and fish can usually improve cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

Manage stress

Chronic or severe stress can alter the blood and nervous system.

What is a burn evaluation?

A burn is a type of injury to the skin and/or other tissues. The skin is the largest organ in your body. It is essential for

Working toward a goal

Fitness trainer and entrepreneur Cassey Ho has won a large audience through her online fitness videos and social media presence. She sees fitness and nutrition as the

Transplants are often a point of crisis, since there is a global shortage of donated organs, but also because there is a high risk that the receiver's body will reject the donated organ or transplanted tissue. A new type of "universal" stem cells could solve some of these issues.
stem cells in petri dish
Researchers may have found a way to prevent the immune system from attacking new stem cells that arrive in a person's body.

Recent efforts from a team of University of California (UC), San Francisco, researchers have focused on genetically engineering pluripotent stem cells that would be able to bypass the body's immune response and, thus, preempt rejection.

So far, to bypass the issue of donated tissue shortages, scientists have created stem cells out of mature, fully developed cells they collect from the same person who needs a transplant. They call these "induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPSCs).

With iPSCs, scientists hope to minimize the chances of the body rejecting these cells — which will later specialize and step into their new role — as the recipient's immune system tends to "label" donor tissue as a potential pathogen, and act against it.

However, even this route has been fraught with many obstacles and, surprisingly, even stem cells that specialists have engineered from a person's own cells regularly face rejection.

Moreover, iPSC processes are difficult to conduct, and it is harder still to reproduce successful attempts.

"There are many issues with iPSC technology, but the biggest hurdles are quality control and reproducibility. We don't know what makes some cells amenable to reprogramming, but most scientists agree it can't yet be reliably done," notes Dr. Tobias Deuse, lead author on the new study paper that appears in the journal Nature Biotechnology.

"Most approaches to individualized iPSC therapies have been abandoned because of this," Dr.

A nephrologist is a type of doctor who focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney conditions. Nephrologists also receive training to help manage the impact of kidney dysfunction on the rest of the body.

A doctor may refer someone to a nephrologist if they believe that the person shows signs of kidney problems, such as kidney disease, infections, or growths.

In this article, we discuss what nephrologists do, the types of conditions they treat, the procedures they perform, and when someone might need to visit one.

What is a nephrologist?

a doctor who is also a nephrologist
A nephrologist specializes in treating diseases of the kidneys.

A nephrologist is a kidney specialist. They can perform diagnostic tests and treat conditions related to the kidneys.

Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. To become a nephrologist, a person should:

  • complete an undergraduate and medical degree
  • complete a 3 year residency in basic internal medicine training
  • complete a 2 or 3 year fellowship focusing on nephrology
  • pass a board certification exam (optional)

Nephrologists often work in individual or group practices caring for people referred from family doctors or specialists. Many nephrologists also consult on cases in hospitals and oversee dialysis units, usually in a clinic or a hospital.

Some nephrologists also focus on clinical research, while others work as professors and supervisors.

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Which medical conditions do they treat?

Nephrologists treat conditions that involve or impact the kidneys, both directly and indirectly.

Some common conditions a nephrologist treats or helps treat include:

  • advanced or chronic kidney disease
  • glomerular conditions, such as glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome
  • tubulointerstitial kidney diseases
  • tubular defects
  • kidney vascular conditions, such as renal artery stenosis
  • kidney infections
  • kidney neoplasms, or abnormal growths
  • structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, bladder, or urine collection system, such as nephrolithiasis
  • high blood pressure
  • vasculitis
  • autoimmune conditions involving the kidneys
  • electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base imbalances or disturbances
  • some metabolic disorders, such as diabetes