Tooth extraction involves completely removing a tooth from the mouth. People may require tooth extraction for many reasons, ranging from tooth decay to crowded teeth.

A dentist or dental surgeon will perform the extraction in their clinic and then give the person some instructions for caring for the area as it heals.

During the appointment, the dental surgeon will inject a strong anesthetic into the area around the tooth to prevent the person from feeling any pain. They will then use a series of instruments to loosen the tooth before pulling it out.

After removing the tooth, they will place gauze over the extraction site to help control bleeding and promote clotting.

Learn more about tooth extraction aftercare in this article. We also provide a general healing timeline and explain when to speak to a dentist.


a man using a cold compress as Tooth extraction aftercare
Using a cold compress may help reduce pain after a tooth extraction.

Aftercare for an extracted tooth can vary slightly depending on a few factors.

These include which tooth the dentist took out, as some teeth have deeper roots than others and take longer to heal. However, most people find that pain decreases after about 3 days.

One of the most important aspects of aftercare is maintaining the blood clot that forms in the socket where the tooth used to be.

Caring for this blood clot is key to the healing process, and it helps prevent painful complications, such as dry socket.

Days 1–2

Much of the aftercare in the first couple of days following an extraction focuses on allowing a blood clot to form and caring for the mouth in general.

As some experts note, low level bleeding for up to 24 hours after an extraction is perfectly normal.

Many factors can cause eyebrow hair loss, including hormonal imbalances, diet, and some skin conditions. Determining the cause of eyebrow hair loss can help a person find the best treatment.

Eyebrow hair loss, the medical name for which is eyebrow hypotrichosis, or eyebrow madarosis, can cause a person to notice thinning hair or missing patches of hair in their eyebrows. It can affect both males and females.

People may notice eyebrow hair loss on one or both sides. Other symptoms can include itchiness, dry skin, and hair loss or hair thinning on other parts of the body.

Typically, eyebrow hair loss is not serious. In this article, we discuss different causes and treatments, as well as diagnosis.


The following sections look at the possible causes of eyebrow hair loss.

Normal aging processes

Woman looking at her eyebrows in the mirror
The aging process or hormonal imbalances may cause eyebrow hair loss.

As people get older, they may notice hair thinning or loss affecting the head, eyebrows, eyelashes, and elsewhere.

Over time, some hair follicles stop producing hair, and the hair shafts become finer. The hair also begins to lose its color, becoming white or gray.

This type of hair loss is a normal part of getting older.

Hormonal imbalances

An imbalance of thyroid hormones can cause eyebrow hair to fall out. This is linked to the following conditions:

  • hyperthyroidism, a condition wherein the body creates too much thyroid hormone
  • hypothyroidism, in which the body does not create enough thyroid hormone

Both types of thyroid imbalance are linked to eyebrow hair loss. Specifically, in hypothyroidism, a person may notice hair loss in the outer third of the eyebrow, which is the thinnest part that points toward the ears.

It may be feasible to treat pancreatic cancer by using one drug to get the cancer cells to depend on a single source of energy, and another drug to take it away from them.
chemist assisting senior man, both smiling
Using two types of drugs at once may combat hard-to-treat pancreatic cancer.

The approach looks promising after a recent study successfully tested it on pancreatic cancer cells and mice in the laboratory.

The researchers who led the study work at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center in the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill.

They hope that the findings will generate new options for treating pancreatic cancer, a disease that typically has a poor prognosis.

In the United States, only around 8.5 percent of people live more than 5 years after a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

The journal Nature Medicine has recently published a paper on the new findings.

First author Kirsten Bryant, Ph.D., who is a research assistant professor at UNC, says that it is early days and there is still a lot of work to do. There are questions to address and human clinical trials of drug safety and effectiveness to conduct.

However, she remains cautiously optimistic, especially as another team has recently come to a similar conclusion in a different study.

"This may not cure pancreatic cancer, but it's another step toward more treatment options," Bryant remarks.

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Pancreatic cancer and autophagy

The pancreas is a large, flat organ that sits deep inside the abdomen behind the stomach. It produces enzymes and hormones that help to digest food and control blood sugar.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pancreatic cancer is one of the "10 most common cancers" that arise in both men and women in the U.S.

Xanax is a benzodiazepine, which is a class of drug that can treat anxiety and panic disorders. It typically takes less than an hour to begin working and has a calming, relaxing effect.

Xanax contains the compound alprazolam. The effects of the Xanax come on quickly and disappear rapidly. Some people take the drug recreationally for its calming effects. The fast acting properties of Xanax can lead to its misuse.

Xanax is an effective medication for controlling panic and anxiety. However, using it recreationally can pose health risks., especially if combined with other depressants, such as alcohol.

In this article, we answer the following questions :

  • What does Xanax feel like?
  • What are its side effects?
  • What does Xanax withdrawal feel like?

Effects on the body and mind

I man on xanax who wonders what does it feel like
Xanax may relieve anxiety and ease muscle tension.

Xanax is an FDA approved medication, one use of which is to treat certain kinds of anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). It can treat symptoms of GAD, such as high levels of anxiety, restlessness, and muscle tension.

Xanax is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. It is in the benzodiazepine class of medications, which is a group of drugs that slow down the CNS.

Xanax works by increasing the effects of a brain chemical called GABA, which promotes calmness and produces a relaxed feeling. The drug decreases the level of excitement in the brain to treat anxiety and panic disorders.

People may experience the following effects from Xanax as well as other depressant drugs:

  • anxiety relief
  • easing of muscle tension
  • relief of insomnia

People may notice that Xanax affects the mind.

A few years ago, scientists in Sweden sparked a heated debate when they published research suggesting that taking antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin E, could make cancer more invasive. Their revelations challenged the belief that antioxidants can help fight cancer.
chest x-ray
New research shows how antioxidants fuel the spread of lung cancer.

Now, two independent Cell studies, one from the United States and the other from Sweden, reveal how lung cancer cells can use antioxidants to help them fuel their spread to other parts of the body.

The researchers anticipate that these findings will lead to new treatments for lung cancer, which kills more people worldwide than any other cancer.

Cancer cells need lots of sugar, or glucose, to help them grow rapidly and metastasize, or spread. To meet this need, they use an energy-making process that is faster than the one that noncancerous cells use.

The downside of having this faster energy mechanism is that it produces lots of molecules called free oxygen radicals that place significant chemical stress on cells.

The new studies, which the researchers carried out using human tissue and mice, reveal how lung cancer cells use antioxidants to withstand oxidative stress and thrive.

The U.S. study shows how two genetic mutations help the lung cancer cells make their own antioxidants to overcome oxidative stress and metastasize.

The Swedish study shows how lung cancer cells use antioxidants from the diet to achieve the same outcome.

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Antioxidants boost metastasis mechanisms

Both studies focus on the effect that reducing oxidative stress has on a protein called BTB domain and CNC homolog 1 (BACH1).

It appears that reducing oxidative stress through antioxidants can raise the stability of BACH1 and boost its accumulation in lung cancer cells.

Gut inflammation and other conditions that involve the immune system are more common among people with irregular sleep patterns, including those who work night shifts. Now, new research in mice has uncovered a previously unknown mechanism that could help to explain the connection.
man asleep at his desk
New research finds a body clock mechanism that may explain the link between sleep patterns and gut health.

The mechanism concerns group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). These immune cells have a strong role in controlling metabolism, inflammation, and other biological processes.

In a recent Nature paper, the scientists explain how they used mice to better understand the role of ILC3s in the gut.

"These cells," says senior study author Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Ph.D., "fulfill important functions in the gut — they fight infection, control the integrity of the gut epithelium, and instruct lipid absorption."

Veiga-Fernandes works at the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, in Lisbon, Portugal. He leads a group that investigates communication at the cellular level between the nervous system and the immune system.

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Sleep pattern, health, and clock genes

"Sleep deprivation or altered sleep habits can have dramatic health consequences, resulting in a range of diseases that frequently have an immune component, such as bowel inflammatory conditions," Veiga-Fernandes explains.

Research has shown that people who work shifts are more likely to develop certain long term health problems.

Those who work night shifts for a long time, for instance, have a higher risk of conditions such as ulcers, some cancers, metabolic illnesses, obesity, and gastrointestinal conditions.