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Fish oil is available as a supplement that manufacturers produce from fish. However, the benefits of fish oil are not always clear, and it may have unexpected side effects.

Certain fish and the oil from them contain healthful fats that health experts recommend people regularly consume in their diets.

The omega-3 fatty acids from fatty fish and shellfish may have a role in:

The United States Department of Agriculture's Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 recommend eating at least 8 ounces of seafood per week because of these benefits.

Research shows a link between eating fish and health, but studies of fish oil supplements often fail to find such clear benefits.

Read on to find out more about fish oil, the side effects of fish oil supplements, how much is too much, and some potential risks.

Side effects of fish oil

a woman taking fish oil tablets that might also get side effects.
If a person is thinking about taking fish oil supplements, they should consult their doctor about any possible side effects.

The side effects a person may experience from fish oil depend on several factors.

These include the person's overall health, whether they take any medications, and if they have any risk factors for fish oil complications.

Most people who take fish oil supplements do not experience any serious side effects.

Finding a simple way to boost hair regrowth remains a challenge for researchers. A new paper claims that micro LEDs might be the answer we have been looking for.
Male pattern balding
New technology may pave the way to hair regrowth solutions.

Hair loss affects millions of people, globally. For some, it is of little concern, but for others, it can impact both self-esteem and confidence.

For these people, finding a way to regrow hair as quickly as possible is important.

The causes of hair loss are very varied; they can include genetic factors, long-term stress, aging, and higher levels of male hormones.

Despite years of dedicated research, boosting hair growth is still hit and miss, expensive, painful, or all of the above.

The current options include a drug called minoxidil (a vasodilator), corticosteroid injections, and hair transplant surgery.

Away from the pitfalls of drugs and surgery, some researchers are turning to the potential use of light. A new study investigates the possibility of a wearable, light-based solution to hair loss.

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A new approach

Earlier studies have revealed that lasers can help regrow hair by stimulating hair follicles, leading to increased cell differentiation. Red light is particularly successful because its wavelength penetrates skin better than the shorter wavelengths of green and blue light.

It may be promising and without apparent side effects, but the equipment necessary for laser hair treatment is large, expensive to power, and difficult to use; this makes it impractical for home use and therefore limits its availability.

A paper — published recently in the journal ACS Nano describes a flexible, wearable device based on micro-light-emitting diodes (micro LEDs).

Everyone, including males, has some breast tissue. For many males, the breast tissue never enlarges. For some, however, it expands due to hormonal changes, certain medications, or an underlying medical condition.

Some people call this condition "man boobs," which may feel like an uncomfortable or bothersome term. Some males may also feel embarrassed to seek a doctor's advice about enlarged breast tissue.

However, it is important to note that enlarged breast tissue is a common concern. As such, there are many possible treatments available for those who wish to change the look of their chest.

Keep reading for more information about the causes of male breast expansion and possible exercises, dietary changes, and treatments to reduce their appearance.


a man wondering what to do about his man boobs.
Possible cause of gynecomastia include hormone changes, excessive body fat, and taking certain antibiotics.

Testosterone in the male body usually prevents the breast tissue from expanding.

However, some males develop enlarged breasts due to hormonal changes or fluctuations. When this occurs, doctors call it gynecomastia.

Gynecomastia is more common in certain groups, including:

  • infants, due to their mother's estrogen
  • teenagers, due to changing hormone levels
  • those over the age of 50

There are several potential causes of gynecomastia, including:

However, for many males, excess breast tissue is not the cause of "man boobs.

People who notice penile discharge may worry that they have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). However, STDs are not the only possible cause of discharge from the penis.

The penis may secrete discharge for several reasons. If it is likely that penile discharge is due to an STD, then it is important to seek treatment. Most STDs are highly treatable, and treatment prevents severe complications.

Male discharge that has a non-STD cause may be a variation of normal discharge, or it could be a sign of an infection that requires treatment.

In this article, we look at the non-STD causes of penile discharge and explain when to see a doctor.

1. Pre-ejaculate

A sat in bed wondering a about Male discharge non STD
A person may produce pre-ejaculate during arousal.

Pre-ejaculate is fluid that comes out of the penis during arousal. People also refer to it as 'precum.'

The Cowper's glands make pre-ejaculate, which exits the penis in the same way as semen and urine.

In most cases, there are only a few drops of pre-ejaculate, so some individuals may not notice it at all.

A 2010 study found that some men have sperm in their pre-ejaculate, while others do not. In most cases, the volume of sperm is low.

There is still a chance that pre-ejaculate entering a vagina could result in pregnancy, so men who do not wish their partner to become pregnant should wear a condom even before having sex.

Learn more about pre-ejaculate and pregnancy here.

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2. Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when harmful bacteria infect part of the urinary tract.

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A person should speak to their doctor about possible drug interactions before taking Xanax.

Sometimes the overdose is unintentional. If a person has been taking benzodiazepines with alcohol or other sedating medications, they may not know that they have overdosed on the drug.

Individuals must tell their doctor and pharmacist which medications they are taking so the healthcare professionals can decide whether Xanax is appropriate and safe.

Doctors warn that mixing benzodiazepines and opioids, alcohol, or other CNS depressants can cause drowsiness, breathing problems, coma, and death.


Both opioids and benzodiazepines can affect breathing because they act on GABA and mu receptors, which are receptors in the brain that control breathing. Taking both of these drugs at the same time can put a person at risk of breathing problems.

Doctors should prescribe the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible duration for these medications to prevent breathing issues and sedation.

Other CNS depressants

People who combine CNS depressants with Xanax may experience an increased action of the benzodiazepine. The additive side effects from different drugs can cause CNS depression, including sedation and drowsiness.

CNS depressants include:

  • psychotropic drugs
  • anticonvulsants
  • antihistamines
  • alcohol


Doctors have noticed that adults over 65 years old may experience digoxin toxicity if they combine digoxin with Xanax. If a person needs to take both of these medications, doctors must monitor them closely for digoxin toxicity, which may include the following symptoms:

  • a stomach upset
  • visual disturbances (yellow or green discoloration)
  • an irregular heartbeat
  • shortness of breath
  • fainting or passing out
  • fatigue
  • dizziness

Cytochrome P450 3A

The enzyme CYP450 3A digests Xanax in the liver.

Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that uses proton beams to kill cancer cells.

Unlike traditional radiation therapy, proton therapy does not use X-rays. Experts think that proton therapy may be safer than other radiation therapies because it targets a specific area and has less of an impact on the healthy tissue around cancer cells.

In this article, we discuss proton therapy for breast cancer. We look at what it is, how it works, the procedure, and effectiveness.

What is proton therapy?

proton therapy for breast cancer
Proton therapy may improve breast cancer survival rate.

Proton therapy is a precise form of beam radiation therapy that uses energy from protons, or positively charged particles.

Because of its precision, proton beam therapy may improve survival rate by improving local tumor treatment and reducing injury to other organs, leading to fewer radiation-related side effects.

Having radiotherapy can increase the risk of heart-related complications. Proton therapy has a lower risk of these complications because it delivers less radiation to the heart compared to standard photon radiation therapy, according to a 2018 systematic review.

A review reports that the first recorded use of proton beam therapy in a hospital setting was in 1991 in Belgium. Since then, doctors have used proton beam therapy to treat thousands of cancers worldwide.

Proton therapy can treat solid tumors, but it cannot treat cancer cells that have metastasized to different parts of the body.

How does it work?

Radiation specialists use a synchrotron machine to accelerate protons up to 60% the speed of light. The speed of the protons creates a high amount of energy and pushes the protons through a nozzle directed at the body.